A 45-year-old patient with a long history of taking beta-blockers for the treatment of hypertension visits his physician for routine examination.

Which of these are the effects of using beta-blockers on his heart?

A- Decreased blood pressure, heart rate, ejection time and contractility

B- Decreased blood pressure and increased heart rate, ejection time and contractility

C- Decreased blood pressure, heart rate and increased ejection time and contractility

D- Decreased blood pressure, heart rate and ejection time and increased contractility

E- Decreased blood pressure, heart rate, contractility and increased ejection time




Answer: 

Beta-blockers decreases heart rate and contractility causing less consumption of oxygen. A decrease of heart rate allows more time of diastolic filling and ejection time. Beta-blockers decreases renin secretion which decreases aldosterone leading to decreased blood pressure.

The correct answer is E